IELTS ライティング 言い換え(パラフレーズ)表現 10選

IELTSライティング必須の言い換え表現

言い換え表現はIELTSのどのセクションでも必要になりますが、特にライティングで高得点を取るためには極めて重要になります。

同じ言葉や表現を繰り返すことをrepetitionといい、減点対象となるからです。問題文のパラフレーズはタスク1でもタスク2でも必須です。言い換え表現等はタスク2のタイプ別をご覧ください。

ここではタスク1とタスク2のイントロダクションの言い換え表現の例をいくつか提示します。

言い換え・パラフレーズの3つのパターン

パラフレーズは元の文章を詳細に言い換えることで可能になります。そのため、文全体は元の文章よりも長くなります。しかし、冗長的になりすぎずトピックを絞りすぎないように注意し、そして正確にパラフレーズすることは大事であるため、意味を変えてしまわないように気を付けましょう。

意味を変えることなく正確に文語的な表現に言い換えることは、高度な知識を必要とします。しかし、ある一定のパターンを覚えておくと便利です。用語の引き出しをたくさん持つことで言い換え表現に時間を費やさず、時間内に書けるようになるでしょう。

下記の3つのパラフレーズのパターンを覚えてください。初級編、中級編、上級編に分かれています。

初級編は単語単位の言い換えとなります。中級編は文全体の構造を変えることです。上級編は課題の意味を把握してジェネラルセンテンスを追加したり、アカデミックな表現や用語を巧みに使用することになります。

① 初級編
単語単位での言い換え (文の順序を変えるのも含む)
例】people = the public, the general public, we, they, 

② 中級編_文単位での言い換え
例】people will find happiness from many other factors
  = A variety of aspects in life will affect the level of happiness

③上級編_General sentence を入れて、巧みな表現を駆使する
※ジェネラルセンテンスとは導入文の役割を果たし、課題に対しての最近の傾向や確実に言える事実を持ってくることで、スムーズな書き出しを実現できます。単語や用語が一段と高度でアカデミックになります。

例】There is no doubt that technology has drastically transformed our lives in many aspects. Some people think that technology has positive influence on our lives while others deem the opposite. 

タスク2の最近の問題例とイントロダクションのパラフレーズ例 10選

ここでは、タスク2のイントロダクションの言い換え表現を見てみましょう。課題は最近出された過去問題から選別していますので演習問題としても使用できます。やはり最近の社会問題や社会の傾向についての課題が多く見受けられます。

問題例1】People can live and work anywhere they want because of improved communication technology and transport. Do the advantages of this development outweigh disadvantages?

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
Due to advanced technology in communication and transportation, we can go anywhere to live and work. 

中級編
As communication technology has advanced, physical locations are less and less important. 

上級編
It is irrefutable that because of the advances in telecommunication technology and travel, people today can live and work in any part of the globe.


問題例2】Some people think that family has the most important influence on children’s development, while others believe that factors such as TV, friends, music and books have a more significant impact. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
Some people think that parents are the most influential people in a child’s life while others insist that friends and gadgets like television have a greater impact on them.

中級編
It can be stated by some that family affects children’s progress more than other factors such as their friends. 

上級編
It is considered that the role of family in child development is significant although other factors such as friends or TV are influential to some extent. 


問題例3】It is more important for a building to serve a purpose than to look beautiful. Architects should not worry about producing building as a work of art. Do you agree or disagree?

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
It can be said that functionality is more important than aesthetic elements of buildings. Therefore, architects can focus on serving a purpose rather than looking beautiful. 

中級編
Buildings perform various functions and serve varying needs of their users. At the centre of the discussion is whether the purposes of a building should be placed above its aesthetical values.

上級編
Most importantly, buildings and houses have their own specific purposes to function. From this viewpoint, the beautifully presented designs of a building should not be taken into account for the sake of the purpose. 


問題例4】Some people think all children learning history in school is important. Others think learning subjects more relevant to life is important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
While some believe history should be learnt by all children at school, others argue that subjects that are more useful in our lives should be taught rather than history. 

中級編
History is one of the most common subjects taught at school, although some argue that it is not useful in regular modern life.

上級編
These days,  there is an argument whether history should be prioritized at school or other subjects are more important because they can make our life better.


問題例5】Today people are surrounded by advertising. This affects what people think is important and has a negative impact on people’s lives. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
In recent years, many advertisements are placed everywhere online and offline. 

中級編
As marketing scheme has become aggressive, consumers can be literally surrounded by many advertising. 

上級編
Advertisement is dominant in people’s daily lives nowadays, with the high frequency of people having to see the same products or services over and over again.


問題例6】Space travel has been possible for some time and some people think the space tourism could be developed in the future. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
In the future, travel to space will become a reality and the space tourism will rapidly develop as a result.  

中級編
As space technology is advancing, the journey to space for leisure purpose will be offered to attract many travelers around the world. 

上級編
Due to the development of technology and science, it would be feasible for people to travel to the universe in the years to come.


問題例7】In many countries, more and more people buy a wide range of household goods like television, microwave oven, and rice cooker. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
In many societies, an increasing number of people now purchase a variety of home appliances including TV.  

中級編
In many parts of the world, domestic goods have ever been popular and increasingly been purchased to make our lives easier and convenient. 

上級編
Domestic appliances have become an indispensable part of our everyday life and are often on the top of the shopping list when people decorate their homes.


問題例8】Many governments in the world spend large amounts of money on art which helps develop quality in people’s lives. However, governments should spend money on other things rather than art. Do you agree or disagree?

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
Many countries invest their resources into art development which can also contribute to our life quality. While some agree with the government spending on art, others argue that other areas of development need to be prioritized. 

中級編
Art is an important part of our lives, therefore, a great deal of financial resources are deemed to be necessary to further enrich our lives. 

上級編
Although societies with a heritage in the arts have long been considered culturally sophisticated and advanced,  tax-payers’ money has to be spent practically rather than on cultural endeavours.


問題例9】Many people believe that social networking sites such as Facebook have had a huge negative impact on both individuals and society. To what extent do you agree? 

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
Social networking sites including Facebook are thought to have had a detrimental effect on individual people as well as society.

中級編
Deleterious effects are expected to be brought upon our society and its members when they frequently visit social networking platforms. 

上級編
Social networking sites have revolutionized our way of communicating with others. While the positive impact it brought on our society are well recognized by the public, the development are also accompanied with the opposite effects on individuals and the society as a whole. 


問題例10】The government has the duty to ensure its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe it is individuals’ responsibility to care for their diet and health. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
Some people think that governments have the responsibility to make sure their citizens’ health, whereas others consider  that such responsibility is falling into the hand of individuals 

中級編
There are arguments about whether governments should increase their role in improving public health. Some thereby firmly believe that our health depends upon government involvement. 

上級編
Whether a healthy lifestyle should be a personal choice or should be ensured by the government is a debated issue. According to some, a healthy lifestyle is a preference and this is determined by individuals while others believe that the government of a country should take care of the healthcare facilities of all citizens.

タスク1 のイントロダクションのパラフレーズ例 5選

タスク1のイントロダクションの言い換え表現はパターンが決まっていて使い回しができるので便利です。単語単位での言い換えでも十分で、show ➡ illustrate/compare 等が代表的です。タスク1のリポート形式では高度なパラフレーズは必要なく、ここでは初級編と中級編の2つのパターンを提示しています。

問題例1】The bar chart shows different methods of waste disposal in four cities; Toronto, Madrid, Kuala Lumpur and Amman.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
The given bar graph gives data on the four different waste disposal methods used in Toronto, Madrid, Kuala Lumpur and Amman.

中上級編
The bar chart given illustrates the percentages of total waste disposal by method, namely Landfill, Incineration, Recycling, and Compositing in four cities. 


問題例2】The charts below show what UK graduate and postgraduate students who did not go into full-time work did after leaving college in 2008.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
The two bar charts illustrate working condition of the students who graduated and postgraduate in the UK in 2008 including four categories: part-time work, voluntary work, further.

中上級編
The bar chart given illustrates the percentages of total waste disposal by method, namely Landfill, Incineration, Recycling, and Compositing in four cities. 


問題例3】The graph below shows the quantities of goods transported in the UK between 1974 and 2002 by four different modes of transport.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
The line graph compares the number of goods carried by four forms of transport: road, water, rail and pipeline, in the UK from 1973 to 2002.

中上級編
The line graph details the supply of goods transported in the UK via road, water, rail and pipeline during the period starting 1974 to 2002 .


問題例4】The diagram below show how geothermal energy is used to produce electricity.

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
The flow chart illustrates the process of generating geothermal energy.

中上級編
The picture demonstrates the process by which geothermal energy is employed in the production of electricity.


問題例5】Plan A below shows a health centre in 2005. Plan B shows the same place in the present day. 

パラフレーズ例】
初級編
The maps illustrates some changes of a health centre in present day compared to it was in 2005.

中上級編
The maps compare the floor plan of a health centre before and after its development, between 2005 and the present day. 

まとめ

IELTS試験ではとにかく、言い換え表現を覚えることが非常に効果的です。特にライティングではイントロのパラフレーズは避けて通れない道です。単語を置き換えているだけの人は意味を取って文全体の構成を変えるように心がけ、中級の方はジェネラルセンテンス(トピックに関連した一般的アイデア)を追加し、アカデミックな表現を使用するように心がけましょう。
言い換えの引き出しやパターンを広げることは、日々のリーディングの努力です。日ごろから言い換え表現に気を付けながら読み書きの練習をしましょう!

ライティングに強い

Metropolitan Academy of English

この記事が気に入ったら
いいね または フォローしてね!

よかったらシェアしてね!
  • URLをコピーしました!